We should inspect Sugriva’s concepts on Dharma. If Bharata Says that Sugriva is their fifth brother then one quality that he should be firm about is DHARMA.
1. Kabandha when he introduces Sugriva says he is Satyavan (Bound to Truth) [ 3-72-13].
And then again Mahatmana ( Great souled) [ 3-72-14].
It is commonly believed that Sugriva wanted to kill Vali and become king. This is not true. We have already seen (Refer). That Sugriva never asked Rama to kill Vali. But Rama Killed Vali as he is an aatataaye. After the death of Vali, Sugriva’s lamentations show his character better.
1. Sugriva regretted Vali’s death [4-24-1].
2. He descpices himself for getting his brother Killed [ 4-24-4]
3. Vali’s Death caused him Pain and remorse [ 4-24-7
4. Sugriva’s remembers that Vali during fight always told him “I don’t want to Kill you” [ 4-24-8]
5. Despices himself for killing his brother for the sake of kingdom [ 4-24-9.
6. Bemoans Vali never wanted to kill [ 4-24-10].
7. Condemns himself as Monkey ( poor behaviour) [ 4-24-12].
8. Bemoans that he has committed Sin [ 4-24-13].
9. Declares himself ineligible for Kingdom [ 4-24-15].
10. Sugriva feels he has committed a sin of large proportion [ 4-24-17]
11. Tormented by he sin he wants to commit suicide [ 4-24-23]
These words though spoken in anguish speaks of Sugrivas subordination to DHARMA
वानरेन्द्रो महावीर्यः तेजोवान् अमित प्रभः |
सत्य संधो विनीतः च धृतिमान् मतिमान् महान् || ३-७२-१३
|“He that Sugreeva is a masterful one among vanara-s, highly mettlesome, self-resplendent, and illimitable is his self-radiance… and he is also truth-bound and culture-bound… a mastermind, master-hand and a taskmaster… [3-72-13] Back|
दक्षः प्रगल्भो द्युतिमान् महा बल पराक्रमः |
भ्राता विवासितो वीर राज्य हेतो महात्मना || ३-७२-१४
|“He is a capable adventurer, a courageous exploiter and incomparable one in intrepidity and a brave one in incursions, and his personality will be coruscating ever and anon, for he is the son of Sun-god… but he is banished by his self-conceited brother owing to the reasons of kingdom… [3-72-14] Back|
यथा प्रतिज्ञातम् इदम् नरेन्द्र कृतम् त्वया दृउष्ट फलम् च कर्म |
मम अद्य भोगेषु नरेन्द्र सूनो मनो निवृत्तम् हत जिवितेन || ४-२४-४
|“As promised, oh, best king, you have accomplished this deed with its eventual fruition of getting back the kingdom and my wife, but now, oh, prince, my heart is backsliding from extravagances of kingdom and kingship, as my life itself is rendered despicable, for I got my brother killed. [4-24-4] Back|
श्रेयो अद्य मन्ये मम शैल मुख्ये तस्मिन् हि वासः चिरम् ऋष्यमूके |
यथा तथा वर्तयतः स्व वृत्या न इमम् निहत्य त्रिदिवसय लाभः || ४-२४-७
|“I think it would be better for me to live on that best mountain Rishyamuka for ever in an as is where is condition, somehow spending life befitting to a monkey, and achieving even heaven on killing my brother is of no good. [4-24-7] Back|
न त्वा जिघांसामि चर इति यत् माम् अयम् महात्मा मतिमान् उवाच |
तस्य एवे तत् राम वचो अनुरूपम् इदम् वचः कर्म च मे अनुरूपम् || ४-२४-८
|“The words which he used to speak to me saying, ‘I do not wish to kill you, begone…’ are befitting to that great-souled and rational vanara, and my words in asking you to him to kill him, and my deeds in getting him killed are befitting to me, as an irrational vanara. [4-24-8] Back|
भ्राता कथम् नाम महा गुणस्य भ्रातुर् वधम् राम विरोचयेत |
राजस्य दुःखस्य च वीर सारम् विचिन्तयन् काम पुरस्कृतो अपि || ४-२४-९
|“Indeed, oh, brave Rama, whether killing one’s own brother will be self-torturous? Or, taking pleasure in kingdom on killing that brother will be more? Or, the distress ensuing that killing will be the most? Without truly discriminating these cruces, even if one has one’s own own avarice in prospect, who is he that is going to take pleasure in killing his own highly honoured brother? Excepting me! [4-24-9] Back|
वधो हि मे मतो न असीत् स्व महात्म्या अव्यतिक्रमात् |
मम आसीत् बुद्धिः दुरात्म्यात् प्राण हारी व्यतिक्रमः || ४-२४-१०
|“Killing me is not in the intent of Vali violating his probity, but my intent has become evilly life taking, violating my own probity. [4-24-10] Back|
भ्रातृत्वम् आर्य भावः च धर्मः च अनेन रक्षितः |
मया क्रोधः च कामः च कपित्वम् च प्रदर्शितम् || ४-२४-१२
|“Fraternity, dignity and also probity are conserved by him, while I exhibited furiousness, enviousness and also naughtiness of a monkey. [4-24-12] Back|
अनीप्सनीयम् न अन्वेक्षणीयम् |
प्राप्तो अस्मि पाप्मानम् वयस्य
भ्रातुः वध त्वाष्ट्र वधात् इव इन्द्रः || ४-२४-१३
|“As Indra acquired sin on killing Vishvarupa, the son of Tvastha, I too derived a sin by killing my brother, which sin is absolutely unimaginable for quantification, totally undesirable at any given time, wholly discardable by sagacious souls, and a disgustingly horrible spectre of brotherly hate. [4-24-13] Back|
ना अर्हामि सन्मानम् इमम् प्रजानाम् न यौव राज्यम् कुत एव राज्यम् |
अधर्म युक्तम् कुल नाश युक्तम् एवम् विधम् राघव कर्म कृत्वा || ४-२४-१५
|“On undertaking this sort of deed that includes unjust and involves ruination of one’s own race, I am unsuited for this sort of accolade from the subjects of this kingdom, and when I am ineligible to be the price regent of this kingdom, wherefore to become its regent? [4-24-15] Back|
सोदर्य अघाता अपर गात्र वालः संताप हस्त अक्षि शिरो विषाणः |
एनोमयो माम् अभिहन्ति हस्ती दृप्तो नदी कूलम् इव प्रवृद्धः || ४-२४- १७
|“The sin of mine in killing my brother assumed a form of an elephant, where my sinister motives of killing my own brother have assumed that elephant’s hind and tail, and my causing agony to my own brother has become that elephant’s head, eyes, trunk, and tusks, with them that berserk and monstrous elephant called sin, is goring me as it would gore a riverbed. [4-24- 17] Back|
कृत्स्नम् तु ते सेत्स्यति कार्यम् एतत् मयि अपि अतीते मनुजेन्द्र पुत्र |
कुलस्य हन्तारम् अजीवन अर्हम् राम अनुजानीहि कृत अगसम् माम् || ४-२४-२३
|“Oh, prince, even if I am dead your mission will be achieved in its entirety, and oh, Rama, having perpetrated infraction I have become an eliminator of the propriety of our race, hence I have become an unworthy one to live, and hence permit me to commit myself to fire…” Thus Sugreeva said to Rama. [4-24-23] Back|
All Sloka Translations are from the site Valmiki Ramayana